Learn how it works


Age fraud is age fabrication or the use of false documentation to gain an advantage over opponents. It is widely present in competitive sports, especially among the players who originate from the countries where birth certificates are not easily verifiable. Older players with forged birth certificates compete with younger ones. Being recognised as “talents” they gain the advantage in signing contracts with successful clubs and academies worldwide.

There are numerous examples of age fraud in sport. A simple search could leave you stunned by the frequency of age fraud cases in professional sport, among the famous athletes with highest salaries. The things get much worse if you continue the investigation to the lesser-known players. Unfortunately, the confirmed cases of age fraud are just the top of the iceberg.

The financial damage as well as harm to the reputation is a considerable issue for a club, academy or the manager once the age fraud is discovered. Often, at the time the fraud is confirmed, the irreparable damage has been done.

AgeEst can help stopping the age fraud at its very roots, preventing the financial and reputational damage and at the same time ensuring the fair competition among young players with their peers.


True (chronological) age


Chronological age is the amount of time that has passed from the date of birth to the present time.
Physical (somatic) as well as sexual development are related to chronological age. However, some children develop faster while others develop at a slower rate. Just by observing physical growth and sexual development one can often be mistaken while estimating the age of the child.
Dental development as well as the bone (skeletal) development shows a particularly good correlation with the chronological age. That is why development of teeth and bones is used in age estimation of the persons whose age is unknown.

Dental age and bone age


Dental age is defined as the age at which an average child reaches a certain degree of teeth development.
Bone age is defined as the age at which an average child reaches a certain degree of bone development.



Age range within dental age estimation is confident


Based on the dental development, age can be estimated while growth is taking place. Once the development of teeth has finished, the age cannot be estimated with the high accuracy specific for the period of growth and development.
Due to the lack of scientific data, estimating age in individuals younger than 5 years old is not confident.
Therefore, the most accurate estimation can be provided for individuals who are between 5 and 18 years old.


AgeEst requires few information to estimate the age of the individual: a panoramic X-ray, the date when it was taken, gender and ethnicity of the individual.
After the age estimation is done and sent to the client, AgeEst requests the information about the birth certificate. AgeEst uses the stated age (the age according to the birth certificate) to compare it with estimated dental age and then send the full report of the age estimation.
The full report compares the stated and estimated age, provides the probability that the stated age is true and, according to gender and ethnically specific normal distribution scale, clearly shows the possible age range of the person concerned.


What is a panoramic X-ray (orthopantomogram)?


It is an X-ray of all teeth with the accompanying structures (jaws, sinuses, nose etc.).

Why does AgeEst require a panoramic X-ray (orthopantomogram)?

Dental age estimation is based on recognizing different developmental stages of permanent teeth which are then scored and placed into a formula for calculating dental age. To be able to see the developmental stages of permanent teeth (of which some have not yet erupted), AgeEst needs a panoramic X-ray (orthopantomogram).

Panoramic X-ray (orthopantomogram) implies radiation. Is it dangerous?


Panoramic X-ray is a standard diagnostic procedure in dental medicine. It is used to detect tooth decay as well as different pathologies regarding the teeth and surrounding structures. Most people do several panoramic X-rays during their lives.

The radiation needed for panoramic X-ray is negligible.


It is equal to 1-day exposure to environmental radiation or to 4 commercial plane flights.
The benefit of the panoramic X-ray is not only forensic but even more clinical. Apart from dental age estimation, AgeEst can provide information about dental status and possible oral pathology.


Which methods AgeEst uses in dental age estimation?


Depending on the ethnicity and gender of the individual, AgeEst uses one of the three scientifically tested methods for children under 16 years of age. The first two are traditional methods named after their authors – Demirjian and Willems method. The third method is Bedek et al. method which was developed recently by doctor Bedek, professor Čuković-Bagić and their associates. This method surpasses the accuracy and limitations of traditional methods. The Bedek et al. method has been scientifically verified and it has proven its worth.
For children over 16 years of age, Cameriere IM3 method is used. The method detects crossing the age threshold into adulthood (18 years of age).

Why does AgeEst require information about gender and ethnicity?


On average, boys develop at a different rate than girls and this difference is significant. Therefore, AgeEst uses different formulas depending on the gender of the individual whose age is being estimated. The scientifically documented differences in development between ethnicities play an important role in the accuracy of the dental age estimation.
AgeEst has a large database of scientific information regarding dental age estimation. These information are gender and population specific enabling the most accurate age estimation.



How precise can AgeEst estimate age?

Among children of any ethnicity, a significant difference in dental as well any other development is noticed. That is why no method for age estimation can tell precisely (in days) what the age of the certain person is. However, scientific studies with a representative sample of a specific population offer the insight into the average development and the differences that exist among individuals. Normal distribution curve represents the best description of those differences. This curve is specific for each population (ethnicity).

Individual age estimation provided by AgeEst is based on the scientific investigations which were conducted on large samples in different populations. Estimating dental age, AgeEst places the individual whose age is being estimated into a population specific normal distribution curve. Therefore, along with the estimated age, AgeEst provides the probability that the individual is within certain age range. Normally, the odds that the individual is up to 1 year older or younger than the estimated age is 70%, while the probability that the individual is within the interval of ±2 years of the estimated age is more than 95%.

AgeEst provides an accurate, scientifically based and fully understandable information about the estimated age of the individual clearly indicating the possibility of age fraud.